Hello Arif here, read more about my world through this website.

I am an Electronics & Communication Engineer by degree, currently pursuing my Ph.D. at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. I work under the guidance of Prof. Hardik J. Pandya (Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Division of EECS, IISc Bangalore). My major research focus is on developing intraoperative tools for augmenting the diagnosis of breast tumours. Apart from my main research focus, I use my skills to design electronics systems and devices for biomedical applications.

Guided by Prof. Hardik J. Pandya at BEES Lab, Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, IISc Bengaluru.


Towards the development of an intraoperative probe using opto-acoustic modalities for breast cancer margin assessment (Ph.D. Problem)

Significance: Breast cancer is one of the most widespread forms of cancer among females, contributing 15% of mortality among all types of cancers found in women. Typically, women are screened for breast cancers using a mammogram to check the presence of lumps. If a lump is detected, a breast biopsy is obtained from the lump and sent for histopathological examination. The tissue morphology is observed, and the cancer is diagnosed and staged. A core needle biopsy or fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) may also be performed to ascertain the biochemical nature (mainly Estrogen, Progesterone, and HER2 status) of the malignancy. Often breast-conserving surgery, i.e., lumpectomy or local excision of diseased tissue, is done under the guidance of an ultrasound probe, known as a minimally invasive technique for resection of diseased tissue. The main aim of the minimally invasive surgery is to achieve complete removal of the tumor while leaving normal breast tissue intact with a better cosmetic outcome, less patient anxiety decreased morbidity and reduced economic burden to the patients. Intraoperative cancer margin assessment plays an essential role in ensuring the success of the surgery.

Proposed Solution: To develop an intraoperative probe for improving breast tumor margin using opto-acoustic sensing. We combine MEMS technology with optical technology in order to realize the probe. We are backed up by a team of expert oncologists and surgeons from University College London, London.

Status: We have already carried out preliminary experiments (ex-vivo) using an experimental setup integrated with optical sensors on formalin-fixed breast tissues and published it. 


Towards Development of LED-based Time-Domain Near-IR Spectroscopy System for Delineating Breast Cancer from Adjacent Normal Tissue.

Kamal AM, Pal UM, Nayak A, Medisetti T, Arjun BS, Pandya HJ.

IEEE Sensors Journal. 2021 May 21

— Currently, the breast cancer diagnosis is performed by microscopic examination of thin slices of ex-vivo biopsy tissue by the pathologist. In this paper, a robust and affordable LED-based time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy system (Spectro-IRTDx) is proposed to further aid the pathologist for rapid and accurate breast cancer diagnosis. The measurements are performed on formalin-fixed cancerous tissues (invasive ductal carcinoma) and their adjacent normal tissues obtained from N = 6 patients. The mean effective attenuation coefficient (µeff) for cancerous tissue is found to be 5.41 and 2.41 times higher than adjacent normal tissue, with good statistical significance (p = 0.00216) while operating at 850 nm and 940 nm, respectively. The average detected peak voltage (DPV) for adjacent normal tissue is found to be 3.44 and 4.16 times higher than cancerous tissue, with good statistical significance (p = 0.00216) while operating at 850 nm and 940 nm, respectively. The mean time of flight for cancerous tissue was 46 ns and 4 ns higher than the adjacent normal tissue while operating at 850 nm and 940 nm, respectively, with good statistical significance (p=0.00216) at 850 nm. The obtained results establish the proof-of-concept of the time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy for rapid diagnosis of core biopsy tissues.



Towards an Opto-Thermo-Acoustic (OTA) based Diagnostic Tool to Delineate Adjacent Normal from Cancerous Tissue for Cancer Margin Assessment


Uttam M. Pal, Arif Mohd Kamal, Ashika Nayak, Tejaswi Medisetti, Hardik J. Pandya


European Conferences on Biomedical Optics 2021.

We propose an optical, thermal, and acoustic (OTA) based portable and cost-effective diagnostic tool (updated Hybrid Spectral-IRDx) to delineate adjacent normal from cancerous tissue during cancer margin assessment to ensure cancer resection.

Opto-acoustic multimodal system to delineate adjacent normal from cancerous tissue to aid intraoperative breast cancer excisional surgery


Uttam M. Pal, Arif Mohd Kamal,  Hardik J. Pandya



— We propose a multimodal system combining the optical and ultrasound technique to characterize the bulk optical and acoustic breast biopsy tissue property. The bulk optical property consisting of optical absorption coefficient (µa) and reduced scattering coefficient (µs`), and acoustic attenuation coefficient (α) are quantified to delineate between adjacent normal and cancerous breast biopsy tissue. It is observed that the cancerous tissue exhibits a higher acoustic attenuation coefficient and optical reduced scattering coefficient compared to adjacent normal tissue, a basis for delineation between adjacent normal and cancerous tissue

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